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6 Common Bovine Illnesses and Diseases

By TVN Academy on April 26, 2018 in | comments
6 Common Bovine Illnesses and Diseases
Foot and Mouth Disease – Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease in livestock that causes lesions similar to blisters on the tongue, nose, mouth and toes of the animals. The disease does not normally kill the livestock but creates painful ulcers after the blisters burst, and can cause high fevers, weakened legs, and even the loss of the ability to walk.
Australia does not have Foot and Mouth Disease or FMD as it is commonly referred to.
While the disease is not life threatening it is highly contagious and severely affects an animal’s productivity. Australia’s stringent meat safety systems, quarantine measures and geographical isolation have assisted in retaining its FMD-free status.
Brucellosis and tuberculosis - Brucellosis and tuberculosis are two highly contagious diseases carried by cattle. Similar in nature, these diseases are spread by infected material during calving. The diseases threaten humans, because the unpasteurised milk of infected cattle can spread the disease.
Dehydration and heat stress
Dehydration and heat stress are common issues livestock face during the hot summer months.
Signs of Livestock dehydration
  • Sunken eyes
  • “Skin tent” after pinching skin
  • Yellow, dark urine
  • Fever
Treating dehydration requires rehydration of the animal with plenty of water and electrolytes. On average, cattle need anywhere from 3-30 gallons of water per day to stay hydrated. It is safe for a cow to drink 5-10 gallons of water per intake.
Anaemia – Theileria
Anaemia in animals is often caused by bush ticks that attach themselves to the livestock. Normally found in the ears, around the tail, and on the underside of the animal, bush ticks transfer, especially to cattle, a disease known as theileriosis. The disease is common among young calves 8-12 weeks old, but can affect cattle of all ages. The disease creates symptoms of lethargy, loss of appetite, inability to exercise. Cattle with anaemia may have pale/yellow colored gums and abort babies if pregnant.
Bracken Poisoning
Bracken poisoning most commonly occurs in the autumn when grass does not grow. Bracken is a plant that contains toxins poisonous to animals who graze. Bracken is considered cancerous and is almost always fatal to infected livestock. When an animal eats a large amount of bracken, disease forms because of depressed bone marrow and lack of production of white blood cells. Death can occur as soon as five days after the first sign of symptoms.
Common Symptoms include:
  • Depression and loss of appetite
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • High temperature
  • Weakening, collapse and death
Mad Cow Disease
Australia does not have 'mad-cows disease' or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) as it is more accurately known.
BSE is a Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE); an incurable central nervous system illness that has been detected in a number of species, including livestock and humans. BSE is found in cattle.
Want to learn more about Bovine? Study at TVN Academy today and reap the benefits forever.




Overcoming Negative Workmates

By Sally Foley-Lewis on March 13, 2018 in | comments


When I was a little girl I was told to ignore the bully, when you ignore the bully you take away their power. That worked, up to a point, right about the time when I threw the bully's school bag across a busy, 8 lane main road right in front of her father and then turned and screamed at her to stop bullying me!

Not my proudest moment but worth taking a lesson from it. Stand up for yourself.

ignoring the workmate who belittles you, questions your ability, challenges you to stay positive about who are and what you do is incredibility difficult. Losing it, like I did as a child, is not recommended. Dealing with it, standing up for yourself is.

Before looking at strategies for standing up for yourself remember that their behaviour is a reflection of what's going on for them. They may be intimidated or jealous of you and therefore are acting out. In this instance it can be easier to feel sorry for them as their toolbox of skills for coping with jealousy, comparing, intimidation is limited. You may be able to flex your communication with them so they can start to see you as less of a threat. 

There is a proportion of our society, albeit a small one, that will always behave in such unacceptable ways. It's up to you to observe, learn and determine if this is one of those people in the minority or someone you believe you can invest time and effort with in order to improve the relationship. If they are not going to change, the strategies you adopt will have to include stronger resilience and an ability to speak up for yourself if challenged publicly. 

Reach out to others who know you and discuss the issue - not vent, whinge, gossip - seriously discuss and agree strategies. For example, the next time the nasty workmate belittles you to someone then that person can approach you to clarify any details. Or that person can challenge the nasty workmate.

Always check your human resources policies and procedures to find out what your organisation determines as appropriate behaviour. Your HR department are equipped to advise you.

Ask your mentor or someone who knows both you and the nasty workmate what they think of the situation. An outsider's view might be valuable for working out your next steps. At best, you can be assured no one believes the nasty workmate. At worst you'll have an opportunity to clarify and work with someone to resolve this issue.

A strategy you may like to try, is calling the behaviour! Before you speak, take calming breathes and jot down some script-like notes to ensure you are clear in what you want to say. You could use your own version of these:

- Ask the nasty workmate directly to discuss why they are talking about you to others and not directly with you? 
- Let them know that you'd prefer to have an open, respectful and honest conversation if there are any issues that need addressing. 
- Make is clear you would welcome an opportunity to ensure nothing is wrong and that talking about people being their backs actually makes more people look bad rather than good.
- Ask them what they need in order for the two of you to have a more positive working relationship.

Is this easy to do? No. But it's worth the attempt. When you make an effort to improve the situation you can be proud of yourself for making the effort. You can let your boss know you have made an attempt to improve the situation and let them know how it all went. 

In the minutes directly after throwing the bully's school bag across the road, I was running home as fast as I could not because I was proud of myself, but because I was worried I'd get into trouble. I did not sleep easy that night. Even if the nasty workmate refuses to change their behaviour be sure that your efforts leave you sleeping calmly. You may have heard this before: if your behaviour was splashed across the front page of a newspaper or news bulletin and your family (or those whose respect you'd hate to lose) saw it would you be okay with it? 

Sally Foley-Lewis


7 Things You Didn't Know About Cats

By TVN Academy on October 10, 2017 in | comments

Cats. They demand respect. They expect you to serve them and let's face it, they are either secretly plotting to kill you or to take over the world. When your cat is showing signs of The Plotts, be very very afraid.


7) The cat's meow mimics that of a baby crying - meaning - it triggers the brain into thinking a baby is in distress. You will start to feel anxious, your blood pressure will rise and you will succumb to the cat's demand.

Cat 1 - Human Nudda.


6) Kittens sleep more than adult cats because it is when they are asleep that their growth hormone gets released into their body. The growth hormone stops when they are being crazy kittens. That's why some kittens appear to be bigger when they wake up, the hormone is working its magic.

Cat 1 - Human Zero. Let's face it, we all want to sleep 18 hours a day.


5) Cat's can instinctively climb up a tree, but need to be taught how to climb down. Cat's also can't climb down head first.

Cat 0 - Human 1.


4) Cat urine glows in the dark when a black light shines on it. Someone has to try this!

Cat 0 - Human 1


3) Cats have scent glands on their face that release pheromones when they rub against you. It is the dog equivalent of peeing on something.

Cat 1 - Human (I've got nothin)


2) A cat named Emmy lived aboard the RMS Empress of Ireland and she never missed a voyage. On May 28,1914, however, she refused to board. The ship left without her and then sank the following day.

Cat 1 - Human 0 


1) Talkeetna, Alaska had a cat as mayor for 15 years.

Cat 1 - Human 0 


If a cat has been sworn in as a mayor then yes, it is plotting to take over the world!


Loving The Liver

By TVN Academy on October 3, 2017 in | comments
Visually, the liver appears like a red coloured mass, with the exception of the gall bladder and several other sections attached.
Although the liver looks simple, it is in fact, a very complex organ. It performs over 1000 different tasks, most which are vital for living.
The liver produces albumin – an essential protein, the storage of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, the manufacture of digestive enzymes, detoxification of wastes and the production of blood clotting are just some of its functions.
Diagnosing a diseased or damaged liver can be extremely challenging unless the pet is in total liver failure. This is because the various sections of the liver perform the same tasks. The liver also has the ability to compensate one section over the other. For example, if one section of the liver is diseased or malfunctioning, the other sections will take on the extra load to fulfill the body’s needs.
The liver also has the ability to regenerate and to grow back - and it has been recorded that livers that have been partially removed due to disease have grown back to its normal size within 12 months.
The medium through which the liver carries out its functions is the blood. Twenty percent of the blood pumped by the heart goes through the liver. The first tissue to get the nutrients, which is absorbed by the intestines and stomach, is also the liver, and every blood vessel leaving the gastrointestinal tract goes into the liver.
If glucose gets too low in the blood, it’s the liver that converts it into a storage compound (called glycogen) into glucose and then releases it into the veins leaving the liver.
The Functions of the Liver
 Protein Production
Proteins are known as the building blocks of the body. They are the main component of muscle, skin, cell walls, tendons, connective tissue and blood vessels. The components that make up proteins are called amino acids and they are metabolized in the liver.
Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Lipids
Carbohydrates and lipids are the energy stores that control an animal’s body. The storage and release of these are completed within the liver. Everything that is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract arrives at the liver first and very little goes out without being affected in some way. Glucose is extracted immediately from the blood and converted into glycogen, which is stored until needed. Other fatty acids, triglycerides and other various fats are also stored within the liver.
Vitamin Production and Storage
Vitamins, except Vitamin C, are all either made, stored, or regulated by the liver.
Storage of Nutrients
Iron, copper, and zinc are also kept in the liver for future use in the rest of the body. These stored nutrients are carefully monitored because excessive amounts can damage the cells. Another important storage factor of the liver is the amount of blood that this organ can store. The liver can store up to 15% of all blood within the body at any one time. If the animal suddenly loses large quantities of blood, the liver can immediately push a much larger quantity of whole blood with all of its nutrients into general circulation within a matter of seconds.
The liver plays a huge role in the digestive process that occurs within the intestines. Many of the compounds that are produced or excreted by the liver form the bile, which goes from the gallbladder through the bile duct into the small intestine to help the breakdown of food.
The liver breaks down and excretes numerous compounds including the harmful materials from the blood. The liver is also the organ that breaks down some of the sedative and anesthetic agents, antibiotics, and other medications. If the liver fails to eliminate these compounds, the animal will not survive.
The liver could be considered the most vital organ of an animal’s body, with most tasks performed by this organ and this organ alone.
The liver has an amazing ability to regenerate from injury and disease and works 24 hours a day 7 days a week to keep the pet healthy, happy and alive. 

PCV/TP In A Nutshell

By TVN Academy on September 23, 2017 in | comments
Performing a packed cell volume (PCV) and total protein (TP) is one of the easiest tests performed in a veterinary clinic. A PCV/TP can give you valuable information instantly about the pet’s status and help you think ahead to the next step in treatment.
PCV is the percentage of red blood cells in circulating blood. A decreased PCV generally means red blood cell loss from any variety of reasons like cell destruction, blood loss, and failure of bone marrow production. An increased PCV generally means dehydration or an abnormal increase in red blood cell production. TP is a measurement of plasma proteins. A decreased TP generally means the animal is suffering from protein loss from any variety of reasons like blood loss. An increased TP usually means dehydration.
Once you spin down the hematocrit, you can then examine the buffy coat. The buffy coat, which is white blood cells, sits between the red cell layer and the plasma. A large buffy coat can signify a large increase in WBC count.
↑PCV, ↑TP: This patient is dehydrated. As the water portion of blood is decreased you will see an elevation in both the PCV and TP.
↑PCV, normal TP: This patient is dehydrated.
↑PCV, ↓TP : This patient is dehydrated and has protein loss as well. This result is seen in trauma cases. This patient would be suffering from blood loss and it is important to recheck the PCV and TP after starting initial treatment.
Normal PCV, ↑TP: This is a common for cats that have chronic kidney disease. This pet will also have anemia and dehydration.
Normal PCV, normal TP: Normal is good, depending on the reason the PCV/TP were performed in the first place. In trauma cases and blood loss, then the test will need to be rechecked again.
Normal PCV, ↓TP: This patient has a protein losing disease, chronic diarrhea, or certain liver and kidney diseases.
↓PCV, ↑TP: The elevated TP indicates dehydration and anemia.
↓PCV, normal TP: This patient is suffering from Red Blood Cell destruction and possibly IMHA.
↓PCV, ↓TP: This patient is suffering from whole blood loss and needs to be monitored very closely.
So as you can see, a PCV/TP can give you much needed information very quickly. By using your skills and knowledge of the treatment plan for these pets, you can now prepare for their immediate needs.